Commit b0cecc54 authored by srfsh's avatar srfsh Committed by Lynn Foster
Browse files

Fix a field name in the examples

Manufacturing production examples was invalid because the desk is the
`outputOf' the process now.
parent d2b069e6
......@@ -10,14 +10,14 @@ This description refers to this diagram:
![process resource flow](https://raw.githubusercontent.com/valueflows/valueflows/master/release-doc-in-process/process-layer.png)
Take each request for quantities of Recipe Resource as a demand and start the traversal.
**Start:**
* First check for onhand and available Economic Resources, or previously scheduled output Intents, that are not yet allocated to any demand.
* Allocate any that you find to the highest priority demand (where highest priority usually means earliest delivery date). _(Those are soft allocations, known only in the computer system.)
**Start:**
* First check for onhand and available Economic Resources, or previously scheduled output Intents, that are not yet allocated to any demand.
* Allocate any that you find to the highest priority demand (where highest priority usually means earliest delivery date). _(Those are soft allocations, known only in the computer system.)_
* For demands that find no or insufficient available inventory or output Intents, look for a Recipe Process that can create some. If you can't find a Recipe Process, suggest a purchase.
* (Note: a Recipe is not really a thing, it's just a graph - although in a future release it will be a thing. A requested Recipe Resource may have one or more Recipe Processes that can create some Resources of that specification. Each of those Recipe Processes may have Recipe Flow inputs that specify some other Recipe Resources, and each of those Recipe Resources may have Recipe Processes that can create them, and so on, recursively, until you can't find any more creation Recipe Processes. If you find more than one creation Recipe Processes, you will need some way to select one.)
* When you find a Recipe Process,
* then schedule a planned Process based on the Recipe Process, with an output Intent of the required quantity of the demanded Recipe Resource. Backschedule so that the end of the process meets the timing requirements of the inputs to the processes that will be waiting for them.
* Then schedule input Intents for each of the recipe inputs of that Recipe Process, with their quantities scaled to the quantity of the planned output.
* When you find a Recipe Process,
* then schedule a planned Process based on the Recipe Process, with an output Intent of the required quantity of the demanded Recipe Resource. Backschedule so that the end of the process meets the timing requirements of the inputs to the processes that will be waiting for them.
* Then schedule input Intents for each of the recipe inputs of that Recipe Process, with their quantities scaled to the quantity of the planned output.
* Then start over from the **Start** with each of those new input Intents as the demand.
......@@ -17,7 +17,7 @@ Or potentially, views for a global value system economy (really).
* from members to a network
* from a network to the members
* from one network to another
* from a network to the community
* from a network to the community
* from a network to the ecosystem
Accounting isn't always just counting beans. It will be important for community economies: what resources do we have, what happened with them, how are they doing? What resources do we need? Who needs what? Who can provide what? What waste have we generated and how can we improve?
......@@ -25,11 +25,11 @@ Accounting isn't always just counting beans. It will be important for community
### But if you want to count beans...
The standard set of accounting reports are needed by many organizations. A standard General Ledger, Balance Sheet, and Income Statement can be generated automatically from ValueFlows data. No need to create a Chart of Accounts or post double-entries, those can all be created by a computer program on request.
The standard set of accounting reports are needed by many organizations. A standard General Ledger, Balance Sheet, and Income Statement can be generated automatically from ValueFlows data. No need to create a Chart of Accounts or post double-entries, those can all be created by a computer program on request.
![GL](https://raw.githubusercontent.com/valueflows/valueflows/master/release-doc-in-process/std-accounting.png)
Moreover, General Ledgers and accounting reports can be created automatically for each agent in an economic network using the VF vocabulary. The accounting views use the Dependent or Individual Agent view of ValueFlows. See also [Independent vs Dependent views](https://valueflo.ws/introduction/core.html#independent-vs-dependent-views).
Moreover, General Ledgers and accounting reports can be created automatically for each agent in an economic network using the VF vocabulary. The accounting views use the Dependent or Individual Agent view of ValueFlows. See also [Independent vs Dependent views](core.md#independent-vs-dependent-views).
Accounting statements can also be updated instantly for each participant in any economic event as soon as the event is recorded. For example, consider an economic exchange, where one agent transfers some goods to another, and the other agent transfers some money in return. The inventory of the goods-providing agent will be instantly decremented, and the receiving agent's incremented. Likewise the money accounts of the money-providing and receiving agents will immediately change. Income statements, balance sheets, and cash flow reports can reflect the new changes immediately. The financial positions of each agent can always be up-to-date as of the last recorded event.
......
......@@ -18,4 +18,4 @@ There are a number of useful Properties in existing vocabularies that can be use
Relationships have direction: For example, in "Michael is a member of Enspiral", Michael is the subject and Enspiral is the object. In this case the inverse is also valid, "Enspiral has member Michael".
Relationships can be in a [scope](https://valueflo.ws/introduction/scoping.html) (or not): For example, "Kathy is mentor of Sam, in the scope of Enspiral."
Relationships can be in a [scope](scoping.md) (or not): For example, "Kathy is mentor of Sam, in the scope of Enspiral."
......@@ -36,4 +36,4 @@ Producing and exchange olive oil and coffee, even more simplified.
Value flows can be traversed forwards ("tracking") or backwards ("tracing"). Often people use the term "provenance" when looking backwards towards the source of some resource, sometimes when a problem emerges (as in a disease outbreak from food), sometimes to know the quality of the resource (as in wanting local humanely produced food with lower ecological impact).
The data structures of ValueFlows provide the ability to trace or track any value flow, no matter how long or complex, see [Track and Trace](https://valueflo.ws/appendix/track.html).
The data structures of ValueFlows provide the ability to trace or track any value flow, no matter how long or complex, see [Track and Trace](/appendix/track.md).
......@@ -2,7 +2,7 @@
The vocabulary has a core that would fit many different kinds of economic formations - value networks, supply chains, joint ventures, business collaboration network....
The core is based on the REA (Resource, Event, Agent) ontology. You can find all the details by following the [links here](https://valueflows.gitbooks.io/valueflows/content/appendix/rea.html).
The core is based on the REA (Resource, Event, Agent) ontology. You can find all the details by following the [links here](/appendix/rea.md).
These are the main concepts in the REA ontology, as pictured in this [document](http://www.msu.edu/user/mccarth4/Alabama.doc):
......@@ -12,17 +12,18 @@ Economic events are the movers and shakers. They say what is happening to econo
A key concept in REA is Duality, which means that each event wants one or more balancing events: in other words, some kind of reciprocity. REA uses an abstract word for this relationship in order to make the meaning configurable. The reciprocity does not need to happen at the same time, or in the same transaction. And it can have any logic that a network wants: payment in money, swap, earn credits, earn reputation points, share with the commons, from each according to ability and to each according to need, etc.
### Independent vs Dependent views
### Independent vs Dependent views {#independent-vs-dependent-views}
![independent vs dependent](https://raw.githubusercontent.com/valueflows/valueflows/master/release-doc-in-process/REAviews.png)
Conventional accounting always takes the view of an individual agent: often a company. REA, and ValueFlows, take an independent view, sometimes called a “collaboration space” or economic network or supply chain view. At the same time, derived from the independent view, REA and ValueFlows support each agent's own accounting view.
For example, from one agent's viewpoint, the exchange may be a "purchase", from the other agent's viewpoint, it might be a "sale". From the neutral viewpoint, it is an exchange of resources, with usually at least two flows of resources, from different directions.
For example, from one agent's viewpoint, the exchange may be a "purchase", from the other agent's viewpoint, it might be a "sale". From the neutral viewpoint, it is an exchange of resources, with usually at least two flows of resources, from different directions.
For the individual agent’s accounting systems, assuming an Exchange of goods for money, when the goods are transferred from the seller to the purchaser, the purchaser’s Accounts Payable are increased (credited) and the seller’s Accounts Receivable are increased (debited). The independent view sees a transfer of goods from one agent to another.
While conventional accounting uses the individual agent view, larger-scale economic analyses and planning, like for networks, communities, and bioregions, use the independent view. See [Value Flow Algorithms](https://valueflo.ws/appendix/overview.html).
While conventional accounting uses the individual agent view, larger-scale economic analyses and planning, like for networks, communities, and bioregions, use the independent view. See [Value Flow Algorithms](/appendix/overview.md).
### Levels of the ontology
......
......@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@ Intents describe potential future events which have not been agreed to by other
### Commitment
Commitments describe potential future events which the involved agents have already agreed to pursue. Commitments can be considered contractual promises from one agent to another. Commitments can be thought of as plans of economic events, and Economic Events can fulfull Commitments. Commitments can satisfy Intents.
Commitments describe potential future events which the involved agents have already agreed to pursue. Commitments can be considered contractual promises from one agent to another. Commitments can be thought of as plans of economic events, and Economic Events can fulfill Commitments. Commitments can satisfy Intents.
### Economic Events
......
......@@ -2,7 +2,7 @@
An operational plan is a schedule of related operational processes, that constitute a body of scheduled work with defined deliverable(s). A plan normally contains one or more process resource flows, one for each deliverable.
A plan can cover more than one [Scope](https://valueflo.ws/introduction/scoping.html), if the different scopes are tightly coordinated with pre-agreed rules, for example sub-organizations of a main organization, or an ongoing supply chain. If not, or if the agents prefer, then requirements from one scope could become deliverables for another scope's plan. Different batch sizes could trigger a new plan for inputs to the main deliverable too. But all of this does not affect the vocabulary or model. Plans can relate to each other through resource flows just like Processes.
A plan can cover more than one [Scope](scoping.md), if the different scopes are tightly coordinated with pre-agreed rules, for example sub-organizations of a main organization, or an ongoing supply chain. If not, or if the agents prefer, then requirements from one scope could become deliverables for another scope's plan. Different batch sizes could trigger a new plan for inputs to the main deliverable too. But all of this does not affect the vocabulary or model. Plans can relate to each other through resource flows just like Processes.
Plans are used for understanding and coordinating what needs to happen for specific outputs. The size and complexity of a Plan is up to the people who are planning and coordinating the work.
......
......@@ -4,11 +4,11 @@ Proposals refer to published requests or offers, sometimes with what is expected
Proposals are everywhere in advertising. But we see many groups posting proposals that are different from commercial advertisements or e-commerce offers.
Proposals can stay directed to broad or specific *audience*. In the broadest case, they stay available for anyone (public proposals). In the most narrow case, the stay available only for specific agent. In between those two extremes a whole spectrum exists, for example two distinct proposals can exist on providing particular product or service - one for club members and one for general public etc.
Proposals can stay directed to broad or specific *audience*. In the broadest case, they stay available for anyone (public proposals). In the most narrow case, the stay available only for specific agent. In between those two extremes a whole spectrum exists. For example two distinct proposals can exist on providing particular product or service - one for club members and one for general public etc.
Proposals may be specific or more general, often not commercial at all, expressed not in identified products but in categories, tags, and text. But they want to find each other. The offers want to find the matching requests. The requests want to find the matching offers.
Proposals may be specific or more general, often not commercial at all, expressed not in identified products but in categories, tags, and text. But they want to find each other. The offers want to find the matching requests. The requests want to find the matching offers.
When they find their match, those with the matching offer and request enter into a [conversation for action](cfa.html) which might result in an agreement.
When they find their match, those with the matching offer and request enter into a [conversation for action](cfa.md) which might result in an agreement.
A proposal to do something might enter into conversation for action which might result in commitments for a process. This may lead to more and better cycles of engagement:
......
# Economic Resources
Traditionally, an economic resource is defined by its utility, but also by its scarcity and its control by an economic agent. That definition is too limited. Its limitations include:
* Intellectual creations like designs are not scarce, yet they clearly are economic resources. They only become scarce when legally restricted by patents and copyrights.
* Intellectual creations like designs are not scarce, yet they clearly are economic resources. They only become scarce when legally restricted by patents and copyrights.
* Air, water, and other products of nature are clearly economic resources, but they are not under the control of an agent unless they are legally restricted by ownership. However, by means of the invisible foot that accompanies the invisible hand, they are regularly degraded by enterprises, and not accounted for, classified as “externalities”.
We want to think of ourselves as participants in ecosystems, not competing enterprises. As such, we need to account for our effects on all aspects of our ecosystem.
......@@ -23,13 +23,13 @@ is a specification. Your library may have two copies that you can check out. Tho
An economic resource or a flow can have only one *resource specification* in ValueFlows. This defines the lowest level useful type or kind of the resource that is needed. The ValueFlows vocabulary defines this as the ResourceSpecification. Note that often taxonomies and other references on the web can define very specific resource specifications at their leaf levels, and these can be used if the necessary properties can be found. Note also that for specific global identifiers such as GTIN, we recommend using properties of the [GoodRelations ProductOrServiceModel](http://www.heppnetz.de/ontologies/goodrelations/v1.html#ProductOrServiceModel).
An economic resource or a flow can have any number of *resource classifications*. They are used to filter, match, or group economic resources. Resource classifications can be part of a taxonomy. That means they can be defined very broadly and generally and maybe vaguely, or they can be defined very narrowly, but fit into broader classifications.
An economic resource or a flow can have any number of *resource classifications*. They are used to filter, match, or group economic resources. Resource classifications can be part of a taxonomy. That means they can be defined very broadly and generally and maybe vaguely, or they can be defined very narrowly, but fit into broader classifications.
So, for example, you may want an apple. Or you may want a green apple. Or you may want a Granny Smith apple.
Or, Herb is the parent classification of Anise Hyssop, Goldenrod, Nettles, Red Clover, etc. Besides its usefulness in understanding taxonomies of resource types, this can be useful when one can define a general recipe that will work for many more specific kinds of resources.
People can use the multitude of existing taxonomies for resource classifications, or can also create their own as needed.
People can use the multitude of existing taxonomies for resource classifications, or can also create their own as needed.
Resource classifications can also use other schemes, like facets or tags.
......@@ -64,7 +64,7 @@ This can vary. And people can be allowed within some boundaries of agreement to
Here are some examples from manufacturing situations:
* Unique identifier = an assigned serialized identifier, which is unique across manufacturers, due to agreements in an industry. Examples are computers, vehicles, and other equipment.
* Unique identifier = resource model + lot identifier + location + owner: so in other words, the owner of the rights was part of the unique identifier of the resource, and if the resource got transferred from one owner to another, the first owner's resources would be decremented, and the second owner's resources would be incremented.
* Unique identifier = resource model + lot identifier + location + owner: so in other words, the owner of the rights was part of the unique identifier of the resource, and if the resource got transferred from one owner to another, the first owner's resources would be decremented, and the second owner's resources would be incremented.
Note in the last case, a transfer of rights means a different resource. This is common with resources that are not serialized, where one logical resource has a quantity greater than 1, and the individual instances are substitutable. (Think nuts and bolts, grain, strawberries, bottles of beer in cases, etc.)
......@@ -76,7 +76,7 @@ Sometimes part of the logical identification of a resource includes:
Stage is used when the same resource passes through multiple processes in its lifetime, and that information is needed by the next process to determine which resources can be valid inputs. For example, in creating a translation, you might have one translated document pass through translation, editing, proofreading, formatting stages. You don't want to bring that resource into the formatting stage until it has been proofread, for example. Or you might have a testing stage for a component or product, in which case you don't want to consume or transfer the resource until it both has been through the testing stage, and had a `pass` output result.
These can be defined on the recipe or the plan, showing where an input flow expects a certain stage and/or state of a resource. In that case, [Dependent demand planning](https://valueflo.ws/appendix/dependent-demand.html) will select only those resources that fit the specified stage and state. In user-interface forms for adding EconomicEvents, the input event form should query EconomicResources for required stage and state when offering selections of possible input resources. The stage and state of an EconomicResource can be derived or stored, as preferred.
These can be defined on the recipe or the plan, showing where an input flow expects a certain stage and/or state of a resource. In that case, [Dependent demand planning](/appendix/dependent-demand.md) will select only those resources that fit the specified stage and state. In user-interface forms for adding EconomicEvents, the input event form should query EconomicResources for required stage and state when offering selections of possible input resources. The stage and state of an EconomicResource can be derived or stored, as preferred.
#### How resources relate to events
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......@@ -2,7 +2,7 @@
You can view this in an active environment [here](http://www.visualdataweb.de/webvowl/#iri=https://raw.githubusercontent.com/valueflows/valueflows/master/release-doc-in-process/all_vf.TTL).
Note that this diagram includes only the linked open data VF namespace, so does not include important items for which we are re-using other namespaces. See [the UML Diagram](https://valueflo.ws/specification/diagrams/uml.html) for a complete model with the namespaces identified.
Note that this diagram includes only the linked open data VF namespace, so does not include important items for which we are re-using other namespaces. See [the UML Diagram](uml.md) for a complete model with the namespaces identified.
*To make the diagram bigger, you can right click and select View Image.*
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......@@ -33,7 +33,7 @@ http://www.ontology-of-units-of-measure.org/resource/om-2/
* [`om2:Unit`](http://www.ontology-of-units-of-measure.org/resource/om-2/Unit)
* A list of units can also be found here. Each subclass on this page has an additional list of units.
* VF will use (at least) `rdfs:label` and `om2:symbol` as properties of Units.
* See note at the end of [Flows](https://valueflo.ws/introduction/flows.html) regarding display of unit `om2:one`.
* See note at the end of [Flows](/introduction/flows.md) regarding display of unit `om2:one`.
### DTYPE
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......@@ -91,7 +91,7 @@
- '@id': mfg:d4d2fd71-34f2-41c3-b1c5-19ad5ed2da59
'@type': EconomicEvent
inputOf: mfg:02b39a30-3e04-4305-9656-7f261aa63c84
outputOf: mfg:02b39a30-3e04-4305-9656-7f261aa63c84
action: produce
provider: https://manufacturing.example/
receiver: https://manufacturing.example/
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